[23] The previous year the Bani Hamida had been defeated by an expedition to Balqa led by Reşid Pasha, the Wali of Damascus. Interview on Campus Protestant, The Mesha Stele 150 Years After the Discovery, Interview for Le Monde de la Bible on the Maresha ostraca, Interview for Le monde de la Bible on the seal of Hezekiah, Virtual Unrolling of Leviticus: Interview for Le Monde de la Bible, Interview in Est Républicain: Archaeology and Biblical Origins. And I built Baal-meon and made therein the ditch, and I built Kiriathaim. [4] At that time, amateur explorers and archaeologists were scouring the Levant for evidence proving the Bible's historicity. Much more have to be discovered to confirm the existence of the great King David, the founder of the ruling dynasty of Judah, the "House of David". [2], The stone was discovered intact by Frederick Augustus Klein, an Anglican missionary, at the site of ancient Dibon (now Dhiban, Jordan), in August 1868. J.-C.). Mesha tells how Chemosh, the god of Moab, had been angry with his people and had allowed them to be subjugated to Israel, but at length, Chemosh returned and assisted Mesha to throw off the yoke of Israel and restore the lands of Moab. [27] The remainder of the stele was reconstructed by Ganneau from the squeeze obtained by Caravacca.[27]. Few modern Biblical archaeology discoveries have caused as much excitement as the Tel Dan inscription—writing on a ninth-century B.C. Content and connection with scripture: a. [13][38][39], In the years following the discovery of the stele a number of scholars questioned its authenticity. Mesha describes his many building projects. The find is especially significant since in recent years several scholars have questioned the existence of David. In light of the, Friedrich Wilhelm Schultz, Professor of Theology at the University of Breslau, wrote in the 1877, Adam L. Bean ; Christopher A. Rollston ; P. Kyle McCarter ; Stefan J. Wimmer (2018). Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The discovery of the Tel Dan Stele led to a re-evaluation of the Mesha Stele by some scholars. p. 8) and, of course, my research paper on the topic. The Mesha Stele in its current location: The brown fragments are pieces of the original stele, whereas the smoother black material is Ganneau's reconstruction from the 1870s. And I dug the ditch for Karchah with the chosen men of Israel. [36], In 2019, Michael Langlois used two new high technology imaging methods to "confirm" Andre Lemaire's view that line 31 contains the phrase "House of David". Since 1993–1994, when the first fragment was discovered and published, the Tel Dan stele has been the object of great interest and debate among epigraphers and biblical scholars.Its significance for the biblical version of Israel's past lies particularly in lines 8 and 9, which mention a "king of Israel" and possibly a "house of David". And I have built this sanctuary for Chemosh in Karchah, a sanctuary of salvation, for he saved me from all aggressors, and made me look upon all mine enemies with contempt. So, when the scholar Charles Clemont-Ganneau heard that the missionary F.A. [35] It seems more likely that some kind of cult-vessel is meant, and other suggestions have included "the lion-statue of its beloved", meaning the city god. [29] Line numbers added to the published version have been removed. The meaning of both words is unclear. “With due caution we suggest the name of the Moabite king Balak, who, according to the Balaam story of Numbers 22–24, sought to bring a divine curse on the … This is not universally accepted—Nadav Na'aman, for instance, once it as BT[D]WD[H], "House of Daodoh", a local ruling family . At about the same time the Dan … Que signifie Élohîm ? [4][10] In 2019 high-resolution photographs were taken of both the inscription itself, and of the original squeeze. And I said to all the people, 'Make you every man a well in his house.' This mid-ninth century BC inscription provided the first mention of David in a contemporary text outside the Bible. Battles between Israel and this same Mesha are also recorded in the Bible. I have built its gates and I have built its towers. [26] Caravacca was injured by the local Bedouin while obtaining the squeeze, and one of his two accompanying horsemen protected the squeeze by tearing it still damp from the stone in seven fragments before escaping. 24 (1870), A neglected phonetic law: The assimilation of pretonic yod to a following coronal in North-West Semitic, High-tech study of ancient stone suggests new proof of King David's Dynasty, 'New reading of Mesha Stele could have far-reaching consequences for biblical history,', A critical examination of the so-called Moabite inscription in the Louvre, Studies and Texts in Folklore, Magic, Mediaeval Romance, Hebrew Apocrypha, and Samaritan Archaeology, Volume 1, Moses Gaster, KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 1971, Das Buch Daniel nach der Septuaginta Hergestellt, Die Unechtheit der Mesainschrift, Rupert Storr, Laupp, 1918, "The Story of a Forgery and the Mēša Inscription", Bilingual Readings: Cuneiform and Phœnician. In 1993 a stela was discovered at Tel Dan in northern Israel mentioning the “House of David” (see Bible and Spade, Autumn 1993: 119–121). [5], The Mesha Stele, the first Canaanite inscription found in the region of Palestine,[6] the longest Iron Age inscription ever found in the region, constitutes the major evidence for the Moabite language, and is a "corner-stone of Semitic epigraphy",[7] and history. [19], The stele is a smoothed block of basalt about a meter tall, 60 cm wide, and 60 cm thick, bearing a surviving inscription of 34 lines.[20]. [11] The new research was interpreted by one researcher as proof for Lemaire's reading,[12] while a different team of researchers concluded that the ruler's name contained three consonants and started with a bet, which excludes the reading "House of David" and, in conjunction with the monarch's city of residence "Horonaim" in Moab, makes it likely that the one mentioned is King Balak, a name also known from Numbers 22–24. [40][41][42][43][44][45][46], The stele is now regarded as of genuine antiquity by the vast majority of biblical archaeologists on the basis that no other inscriptions in this script or language of comparable age were yet known to scholars at the time of its discovery. To inquire about my courses or resources, please. Line 31 says that he captured Horonen from someone who was occupying it. Though one letter of DVD is not complete, Lemaire stated that any other reading than David would be an awkward fit. In this monumental inscription, several people, places, and events of the Bible were definitively … I was interviewed by Le Monde de la Bible on the Mesha stele. But in Omri’s son’s days (or possibly his grandson’s days) Mesha was able to regain control of all the Moabite territory. The inscription in question is difficult to read because o… His subject was the Mesha Stele (also known as the Moabite Stone), the most extensive inscription ever recovered from ancient Palestine. This section is badly damaged, but appears to tell of Mesha's reconquest of the southern lands of Moab, just as the earlier part dealt with victories in the north. 61, pp.23-47; Peeters, Paris, France, This reading of Mesha's father name, quoted here for copyright reasons, is no longer accepted. The legible letters were taken by Lemaire to be BT[*]WD, with the square brackets representing a damaged space that probably contained just one letter. [34] The sentence reads: "I (i.e., Mesha) carried from there (Atartoth) the 'R'L of its DWD (or: its 'R'L of DVD) and I dragged it before Chemosh in Qeriot". Proposed references to David and "House of David", sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFRollston2010 (, Michael Langlois, 2019; The Kings, The City, and the House of David on the Mesha Stele in Light of New Imaging Techniques; Semitica, Vol. [50][51][52], Thomas L. Thompson, a former professor of theology at the University of Copenhagen, closely associated with the Biblical minimalism movement known as the Copenhagen School, which holds that "Israel" is a problematic concept, believes that the inscription on the Mesha stele is not historical, but an allegory. La stèle de Mesha est une stèle de basalte découverte en 1868 et sur laquelle est gravée une inscription remontant à l'époque du roi moabite Mesha (IXe siècle av. And I built Beth-Gamul, and Beth-Diblathaim, and Beth Baal-Meon, and I placed there the poor people of the land. Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200 -539 BCE; p. 99; Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands, Norman Karol Gottwald (2001). 1). In my days he said, Let us go, and I will see my desire upon him and his house, and Israel said, I shall destroy it for ever. [15][16][17] Its authenticity has been disputed over the years, and some biblical minimalists suggest the text was not historical, but a biblical allegory, but the stele is regarded as genuine and historical by the vast majority of biblical archaeologists today. On their evidence, the monarch mentioned is referred to by three consonants, beginning with 'B', and the most probable candidate is not David, but Balak, a biblical Moabite. After studying new photographs of the Mesha Stele and the squeeze of the stele prepared before the stone was broken, we dismiss Lemaire’s proposal to read (‘House of David’) on Line 31. This makes the stele one of three specific archaeological references to the biblical King David! I took Beth-Bamoth for it was destroyed. Required fields are marked *. Chemosh is credited with an important role in the victories of Mesha, but is not mentioned in connection with his building activities, reflecting the … And the king of Israel fortified Jahaz, and occupied it, when he made war against me, and Chemosh drove him out before me, and I took from Moab two hundred men in all, and placed them in Jahaz, and took it to annex it to Dibon. Your email address will not be published. Klein was led to it by Emir Sattam Al-Fayez, son of the Bani Sakhr King Fendi Al-Fayez,[3] although neither of them could read the text. And there were no wells in the interior of the wall in Karchah. The stone was intentionally broken by locals in Jordan, where it was discovered, but not before squeezes of the inscription were taken. The next year, the stele was smashed into several fragments by the Bani Hamida tribe, seen as an act of defiance against the Ottoman authorities who had pressured the Bedouins to hand over the stele so that it could be given to Germany. by Jeffrey W. Hamilton. A "squeeze" (a papier-mâché impression) had been obtained by a local Arab on behalf of Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau, an archaeologist based in the French consulate in Jerusalem. New Seals and Inscriptions, Hebrew, Idumean, Cuneiform; p. XV , Sheffield Phoenix Press, UK, "When God Wasn't So Great: What Yahweh's First Appearance Tells About Early Judaism", "New reading of the Mesha Stele inscription has major consequences for biblical history", "Biblical King, Starts With a B: 3,000 Year-old Riddle May Have Been Solved", http://jordantimes.com/news/local/centre-planning-protest-demand-return-mesha-stele-louvre, "The Moabite Stone, With An Illustration", Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Bd. The Mesha Stele. On 8 February 1870, George Grove of the Palestine Exploration Fund announced the find of the stele in a letter to The Times, attributing the discovery to Charles Warren. The Bible, What a History! Que signifient les mots islam et musulman ? Le texte de trente-quatre lignes (l'inscription la plus longue découverte jusqu'à présent pour cette époque de l'ancien Israël), est écrit en moabite. After studying new photographs of the Mesha Stele and the squeeze of the stele prepared before the stone was broken, we dismiss Lemaire’s proposal to read (‘House of David’) on Line 31. About seven letters are missing from the beginning of the line, followed by the words ןאצ ץראה (“sheep/small cattle of the land”). "An inscribed altar from the Khirbat Ataruz Moabite sanctuary" ; Levant ; vol.50, no.2, pp. One line of thought sees 'R'L as the name of a man (literally "El is my light") and translates DWD as "defender", so that the sense of the passage is that Mesha, having conquered Ataroth, dragged its "defender", whose name was "El is my light", to the altar of Chemosh, where he was presumably sacrificed. [4] French epigraphers, André Lemaire and Émile Puech, suggested in 1994 that a badly damaged portion of line 31 could have read "House of David", which would mean it might contain the earliest extra-Biblical witness to David. His son succeeded him, and he also said, I will oppress Moab. And Chemosh had mercy on it in my time. [31], The inscription seems to parallel an episode in 2 Kings 3: Jehoram of Israel makes an alliance with Jehoshaphat king of Judah and an unnamed king of Edom (south of Judah) to put down his rebellious vassal Mesha; the three kings have the best of the campaign until Mesha, in desperation, sacrifices to his god Chemosh either his eldest son or the eldest son of the king of Edom; the sacrifice turns the tide, "there came great wrath against Israel", and Mesha apparently achieves victory. In 1994 the French epigrapher André Lemaire suggested that letters missing in Line 31 of the stele would spell "House of David," as in the Tel Dan Stele, which features the term in … Ginsberg. The phrase "Omri, king of Israel," eponym of the highland patronate Bit Humri, belongs to a theological world of Narnia. After studying new photographs of the Mesha Stele and the squeeze of the stele prepared before the stone was broken, we dismiss Lemaire’s proposal to read (‘House of David’) on Line 31. In 2001, Anson Rainey proposed that a two-word phrase in line 12—'R'L DWDH—should be read as a reference an "altar hearth of David" at Ataroth, one of the towns captured by Mesha. In 1994, André Lemaire reconstructed BT[D]WD as "House of David", meaning Judah,[4] in line 31. I afterwards ascertained that [Ganneau's] assertion as to no European having, before me, seen the stone was perfectly true. In 1994, epigrapher Andre Lemaire proposed that the famous Moabite Stone also contained the phrase, “House of David.” The Moabite Stone contains an inscription by Mesha, King of Moab, who boasts about his successful rebellion from the King of Israel, an event described in 2 Kings 3. It is now clear that there are three consonants in the name of the monarch mentioned there, and that the first is a beth. And Chemosh said to me, Go take Nebo against Israel, and I went in the night and I fought against it from the break of day till noon, and I took it: and I killed in all seven thousand men, but I did not kill the women and maidens, for I devoted them to Ashtar-Chemosh; and I took from it the vessels of Jehovah, and offered them before Chemosh. [37][12] That same year, however, Israel Finkelstein, Nadav Na'aman and Thomas Römer concluded, on the basis of the same new high-resolution photographs of the squeeze, that Lemaire's reconstruction was flawed. Y a-t-il plusieurs dieux ? Clermont-Ganneau later managed to acquire the fragments and piece them together thanks to the impression made before the stele's destruction. News of the finding set off a race between France, Britain, and Germany to acquire the piece. Mesha tells how Chemosh, the god of Moab, had been angry with his people and had allowed them to be subjugated to Israel, but at length Chemosh returned and assisted Mesha to throw off the yoke of Israel and restore … 211-236; Routledge; UK, Lawrence Mykytiuk (2004). In Lyon, 14 Jan 2021, A New Seal Dating From King Jeroboam II of Israel. The occasion was the erection of a sanctuary for Chemosh in Qarho, the acropolis (citadel) of Dibon, Mesha's capital, in thanks for his aid against Mesha's enemies. I was interviewed by Le Monde de la Bible on the Mesha stele. About seven letters are missing from the beginning of the line, followed by the words ‫צאן‬ ‫“( הארץ‬sheep/small cattle of the land”). Mesha informs … The stone itself was in a most perfect state of preservation not one single piece being broken off, and it was only from great age and exposure to the rain and sun, that certain parts, especially the upper and lower lines, had somewhat suffered. For unknown reasons, his s… A name in Line 31 of the stele, previously thought to read בית דוד, ‘House of David’, could instead read ‘Balak’, a king of Moab mentioned in the biblical … And I assaulted it, And I took it, for Chemosh restored it in my days. So far he is mentioned in the Mesha Stele and on the pages of the Bible. According to that stela, Omri oppressed *Moab because Chemosh, Moab’s deity, was angry with his land. [24], A "squeeze" (a papier-mâché impression) of the full stele had been obtained just prior to its destruction. The Mesha Stele was found in the 19th century in the ruins of the biblical town of Dibon in Moab (present day Jordan), and is now in the Louvre. The Mesha Stele, also known as the Moabite Stone, is a stele dated around 840 BCE containing a significant Canaanite inscription in the name of King Mesha of Moab (a kingdom located in modern Jordan).Mesha tells how Chemosh, the god of Moab, had been angry with his people and had allowed them to be subjugated to Israel, but at length, Chemosh returned and assisted Mesha … Keywords Mesha Stele, Mesha, Moab, Beth David, Balak, Horonaim, Horon The bottom part of the Mesha Stele, which includes Line 31, is broken (Fig. J.-C. environ, elle relate les victoires de Mesha au cours de sa révolte contre le roy… Mesha Stele - Evidence For YHWH (GOD) And The House of David In 1868, a stone was uncovered in the Biblical city of Dibon, which recorded victories by Mesha, king of Moab, over the Israelites. Just who the occupants were is unclear. [47] At that time the Assyrian lion weights were the oldest Phoenician-style inscription that had been discovered. "Now Mesha king of Moab was a sheepbreeder, and he regularly paid the king of Israel … I invite you to read the latest issue of Le Monde de la Bible (n° 230, September-November 2019, see esp. At Tel Dan, as in the Mesha stela, an adversary of the king of Israel and of the House of … [33] Were Lemaire correct, the stele would provide the earliest evidence of the existence of the Judean kingdom and its Davidic dynasty. This paper is published in Semitica 61, which … On 17 February 1870, the 24-year-old Clermont-Ganneau published the first detailed announcement of the stele in the Revue de l’Instruction Publique. [1] Some say it is written in the Phoenician alphabet, but others say it is written in the Old Hebrew script, which is closely related. This apparent correspondence is the basis of the usual dating of the inscription to about 840 BCE, but André Lemaire has cautioned that the identification is not certain and the stele may be as late as 810 BCE.[32]. Une étude high-tech d’une stèle prouve la dynastie du roi David La stèle de Mesha - 9e siècle avant l'ère commune - remplace le roi biblique par un … I assaulted the wall and captured it, and killed all the warriors of the city for the well-pleasing of Chemosh and Moab, and I removed from it all the spoil, and offered it before Chemosh in Kirjath; and I placed therein the men of Siran, and the men of Mochrath. Please leave me your contact details to receive news by e-mail: The Kings, the City and the House of David on the Mesha Stele in Light of New Imaging Techniques, King David’s Dynasty on the Mesha Stele: Interview for the Times of Israel, Did Abraham, Jacob, David… really exist? The first person made a copy of the text. The king also claims to be acting in the national interest by removing Israelite oppression and restoring lost lands, but a close reading of the narrative leaves it unclear whether all the conquered territories were previously Moabite – in three campaign stories, no explicit reference is made to prior Moabite control. Archaeology journalist Estelle Villeneuve reports on the famous mention of the “House of David” which was challenged in a recent paper, whereas my own study (which was conducted without knowledge of my colleagues’ upcoming paper) confirms that this reading remains the most probable one. The Stela of Mesha: building inscription from ancient Moab, famous because it describes events from the history of Israel that are also described in the Bible. [24], Pieces of the original stele containing most of the inscription, 613 letters out of about a thousand, were later recovered and pieced together. About the Mesha Stele: 1. Notes on Some Tablets in the British Museum, Containing Bilingual Legends (Assyrian and Phœnician), "Problems of Genre and Historicity with Palestine's Descriptions", "Neo-Assyrian and Syro-Palestinian Texts I: the Moabite stone", Translation from Northwest Semitic Inscriptions, Land grant to Marduk-apla-iddina I by Meli-Shipak II, Statue of the Tiber river with Romulus and Remus, Vulcan Presenting Venus with Arms for Aeneas, The Attributes of Civilian and Military Music, The Attributes of Music, the Arts and the Sciences, The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, Coresus Sacrificing Himself to Save Callirhoe, Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa, Don Pedro of Toledo Kissing Henry IV's Sword, Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII, Portrait of Madame Marcotte de Sainte-Marie, Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta Appraised by Dante and Virgil, Madonna and Child with Saint Peter and Saint Sebastian, Venus and the Three Graces Presenting Gifts to a Young Woman, A Young Man Being Introduced to the Seven Liberal Arts, Portrait of Alof de Wignacourt and his Page, The Doge on the Bucintoro near the Riva di Sant'Elena, Holy Family with the Family of St John the Baptist, Saints Bernardino of Siena and Louis of Toulouse, Madonna and Child with St John the Baptist and St Catherine of Alexandria, Madonna and Child with St Rose and St Catherine, Portrait of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Portrait of Doña Isabel de Requesens y Enríquez de Cardona-Anglesola, Crucifixion with the Virgin Mary, St John and St Mary Magdalene, The Archangel Raphael Leaving Tobias' Family, Pendant portraits of Marten Soolmans and Oopjen Coppit, Ixion, King of the Lapiths, Deceived by Juno, Who He Wished to Seduce, The Virgin and Child Surrounded by the Holy Innocents, Francis I, Charles V and the Duchess of Étampes, Street Scene near the El Ghouri Mosque in Cairo, Christopher Columbus Before the Council of Salamanca, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mesha_Stele&oldid=1002073139, Near East and Middle East antiquities of the Louvre, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages with numeric Bible version references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mesha's victories over Omri's son (not named) and the men of, His building projects, restoring the fortifications of his strong places and building a palace and reservoirs for water, A now-lost conclusion in the destroyed final lines, This page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 18:36. 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