In Papers Presented at the Wooden Artifacts Group, Cincinnati 1989. The options below are roughly listed from least intrusive to most, but this listing is by no means the final word on the subject. If extracted from a living plant they are balsams, and if not from living plants, they are mineralized or fossil resins. The physical properties of specific paraffins are entirely dependant on the processing of the petroleum and the chain length of the molecule. Traditionally dyes came from vegetable and animal sources, but these have been supplanted by synthetic organo metallic and azo dyes. Shellac: Its Origin and Applications. European Revivalism. They were light, cheap, easily portable and found all over Roman homes. Due to the synthesis process, these original films were extremely unstable and degraded quickly, although recent developments in the manufacture of nitrocellulose lacquers has yielded a material of much greater stability. It is frequently difficult to specifically ascertain the source tree of the resin, because the word "damar" simply means "resin" in the native language. They are, in other words, designer dirt. Amber, a fully fossilized vegetable resin, is among the most prized and durable natural resins. This tradition, likely inherited from the Etruscans, let them eat, drink, party, and lounge simultaneously. Mastic is another relatively soft resin, and originates as an exudate from the pistachio trees of the Mediterranean. Photography of a Textile for Insurance, Appraisal, or Conservation, Tips on How to Handle Antique Textiles and Costumes, Manipulación correcta de textiles antiguo. Most furniture conservators feel comfortable with shellac combined with pigments or dyes for this purpose, but any coating material which fulfills the specific requirements of the treatment is acceptable. Rome: ICCROM, 1985. Egregious examples of this are objects who have been "cleaned" with a (traditional) mixture of linseed oil, spirits of turpentine, beeswax, and vinegar. Journey through Roman history with its citizens and its emperors. Diminishing mechanical stresses through mitigation of environmental fluctuations (relative humidity [RH] especially) should always be part of the best possible scenario for preserving coatings. Common sense dictates the fundamental truth that each object has a purpose and was intended to serve a function. While each individual material has unique characteristics, the framework for approaching the solution to problems can be dealt with in a relatively similar fashion. courses that prepare you to earn With that in mind the reader is reminded of the superficial nature of the information presented here (in general), with particular emphasis on the temporal pertinence of the treatment section. Due to its broad solubility and its compatibility with many other resins, particularly at slightly elevated temperatures, damar is often used in the formulation of varnishes. Beauty was created by mosaics, frescos and water features and other features of Roman interiors rather than by use of elaborate furnishings. Pigments were also made from naturally occurring mineral gemstones such as azurite, ultramarine, and malachite. Elemi is a very soft resin, probably the softest of all natural resins. If the varnish formulation is a solvent release system (the varnish is dissolved in solvent only), a rapidly drying, relatively hard and brittle film can be obtained. Through the vigorous scouring of the surface, the wax is partially liquified and pressed into the surface both physically and thermally, and built up to a thickness adequate to accomplish the desired surface character. Like damar, the term copal actually refers to an imprecisely defined group of natural resins. Microcrystalline waxes have slightly higher molecular weights than paraffins, and thus are harder and have higher melting points. Finally, there are film formers which do not fit neatly into any of the aforementioned categories, such as urushiol, or Oriental lacquer, which is a reactive latex with vague similarities to both oils and resins, and which can be used as a transparent or opaque coating. First and foremost, the functions outlined earlier, providing protection and modifying appearance, form the cornerstones, but others are equally important. Options for treating transparent coatings depend on the type and extent of damage, the coating material in question, and the desired outcome at the conclusion of the treatment. We don't always take time to appreciate Roman furniture, but where would they be without it? The first, and still most important, synthetic resin widely used as a coating is cellulose nitrate, which was first widely available at the end of the 19th century. Other procedures available include using solvent gels to control manipulation of the solvent(s), making soaps from oils and resins which can effectively remove some overcoatings selectively, and using enzymes such as lipase to digest and break down oil containing layers. Plasticizers, flatting agents, and sanding lubricants are added to alter the properties of the dried film. And while neither set of functions is right or wrong, each has its proper role. 2. 3; Museum of Art São Paulo Take a virtual tour of MASP’s ‘Picture Gallery in Transformation’; In conjunction with Google Arts & Culture, Brazil’s MASP offers an online chronological walkthrough of its famous ‘Picture Gallery in Transformation’ — a room filled with an outstanding collection of ancient, Old Master, Impressionist and contemporary works of art. When we eat, we sit in chairs, but the Romans always used couches for important and festive banquets. "A physical model of the cleaning of oil paint;" in Cleaning, Retouching and Coatings Preprints of the Contributions to the Brussells Congress, 3-7 September 1990, Mills, John S., and Perry Smith, editors. Materials used in polychrome finishes, or decorated painted surfaces, are little different than those used in transparent finishing. The Walters' outstanding collection of ancient Greek art illustrates the history and culture of Greece from the Cycladic to the Hellenistic period (ca. It is also home to the Wark Collection of … Harder materials are referred to as resins and softer materials are gums. London: Crafts Council, 1982. Usually ozokerite is processed to become ceresine wax by heat and the addition of sufuric acid, with the resultant ceresine being the supernatant of the reacted crude wax. In fact, in the articles which discuss treatments, the information presented is intended to be appropriate only for the specific application cited by the author. Electromagnetic radiation contributes to the deterioration of coatings in two primary ways. Materials used for inpainting include acrylic resin and emulsion paints, synthetic dyes in natural or synthetic resin solutions, as well as watercolor wash and gauche. It was the seat of a government that perpetuated many Roman administrative and judicial practices. London: Crafts Council, 1983. Once the ground has been stabilized and cleaning is complete, areas of loss to the metal leaf may be re leafed. 1. Historically, the most straightforward method of wax finishing was to simply prepare the surface as usual, then deposit solid wax directly onto the surface of the wood. German Varnish Making. 27, no. Third, and related to the second point, is the use of materials known to be stable over long periods of time. Oil polishes and oil/resin varnishes are less thermoplastic, and depending on the formulation of the coating can also be removed with solvent solutions, although stronger solvents are required. A further distinction is made in common usage, wherein gums are those materials defined as being soluble in cold water, and resins are not. It follows that some general conclusions can be reached for furniture preservation which direct all treatment procedures, including finishes. Ancient Rome “I found Rome a city of bricks, but left it of marble.” –Caesar Augustus. ¿A qué se deben los cambios en la imagen de una pintura? Masschelein Kleiner, Liliane. These range from humble tools and personal items to artefacts used in rituals such as … Oils crosslink with age, which means that they are not easily removed, and under some circumstances may darken considerably. Inspired by the classical art of ancient Greece and Rome, the painted and gilded furniture is one of the greatest artistic triumphs of the early national period. de la Rie, Rene. United States Patent and Trademark Office patent 6,156,108. A balance is always sought between stabilization and restoration, which may require alteration of the piece as it currently exists, while preserving the historic information contained or discovered in the piece being treated. The task is to find a process that works for making decisions in the broadest possible set of circumstances. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Principles of Color Technology. Classical Splendor showcases a suite of furniture designed in 1808 by Benjamin Henry Latrobe for the house of Philadelphia merchant William Waln and his wife, Mary. 69 73. Newell, A.C. and William Holtrop. That is, coatings serve some aesthetic purpose. Bigelow, Deborah, and Fuller, Tamsen. CXXIX, no. The difference between natural resins and gums can be difficult to define, and are thus they are presented together in this section. Work tables, used for crafts, arts, and cooking, were different than decorative tables used to hold lamps or sculptures, which were different than dining tables. 1-15. "An investigation of the removability of naturally aged synthetic picture varnishes." Common "retarding" solvents such as glycol ethers, are used since they are both excellent solvents, and can remain active on a treated surface for days. The Artists Handbook of Materials and Techniques. Roberts, Barbara and Rosamond Westmoreland. 6. Williams, Donald C. "Finding Common Ground: Refinishers and Conservators." Important vegetable waxes are carnauba and candelilla, with esparto, ouricuri (or ouricury), and berry wax as minor components in some coatings. Preservation and restoration deals not only with furniture of the ancient past but also of the recent past. Wolbers, Richard. Plasticizers include oils, rubbers, and resins softer than the primary film forming resin in a coating, and act to keep the hardened film flexible and prevent fracturing or shattering of the film. 8. Drying mechanisms are separated into two broad categories; solvent release and polymerization. This would be accomplished by rubbing solid block wax onto the surface, then burnishing with a bundle of dried grasses, whether horsetail reeds, straw, or other grain stalks. study Evidence of this method of "preserving" furniture and wooden objects is readily apparent in most museum collections. Since cleavage and chalkiness, and their associated loss, are the most prevalent problems faced by polychrome objects, consolidation of the paint layer is a common portion of treatments. First and foremost, existing finishes should be left in place unless they are clearly inappropriate to the object or so badly degraded that they do not serve any of the three functions outlined earlier: aesthetic "enhancement, " surface protection, and providing a historical record. Most naturally occurring resins are of vegetable origin, even though one of the most important resins for furniture coatings is shellac, an insect exudate. Unpublished thesis, 1990. These pieces of art are the most important source for the present-day architects and designers to reconstruct the monuments as per the … A second manner in which radiation affects the surface coating is the effect of ultraviolet radiation, which breaks down resins and bleaches coatings, colorants and surfaces. Another source of black colorant was asphaltum, a natural tar. The perfect example of this is shellac, which is widely used in furniture conservation because it is very stable and remains reversible for long periods of time. This procedure also lays a stable foundation for additional compensation, such as inpainting. Waxes can be applied as clear coatings on objects, or as opaque paints. Acrylic copolymers are applied in the same manner as nitrocellulose lacquers and could be formulated for commercial finishing. There are many considerations about the use of materials used in finishing, refinishing, and caring for finishes on historic furniture. Paint/Coatings Dictionary. and W.M. Benzoin is not particularly useful as a film forming material, and was instead important as a perfume in the varnish. Reactions can also be induced or accelerated by electromagnetic radiation. Billmeyer, Fred and Saltzman, Max. It was also common for the feet of the table to be carved with animal motifs, such as claws. Linseed oil may be used alone as a transparent coating simply by applying it to the surface of the object to be coated and allowing the film to harden in a matter of hours or days, depending on the extent of the modifications implemented during the refining process. 5. Depending on the process of the application, the surface to which the wax is applied is also heated. Fales, Dean A. American Painted Furniture, 1660-1880. While these four areas might seem to be unrelated, they must be integrated into all treatment procedures to insure successful finish care and preservation. Detailed technical descriptions of the chemical decomposition of coating materials are available in several texts listed in the bibliography at the conclusion of this document. Romans made their furniture from wood, metal, or stone (generally marble). In reviewing options for the treatments of coatings, it is important to remember that not all treatments deal exclusively with degraded coating films. Mastic is soluble in both spirits and oils, and remains soluble for extremely long periods of time. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1986. Treating damaged or degraded coatings, like any aspect of thoughtful furniture care, begins with an examination and evaluation of the affected area. Romans, from wealthy to poor, were entertainers. These “eccentric wefts” are characteristic of tapestry weaving from late Roman Egypt. Synthetic resins which are thermoset include urethanes, phenolics, amides, polyesters, epoxies, and amino resins. There are several ways of organizing reviews of materials. Chris has a master's degree in history and teaches at the University of Northern Colorado. : J.Paul Getty Trust, 1988. ----- Science for Conservators. Get access risk-free for 30 days, Drying oils used in finishing wooden objects are all of vegetable origin, mostly squeezed from nuts and seeds. Also, some pigments and colorants can be altered by the encroachment of chemical pollutants through exposure to acidic or caustic environments which change the chemical structure of the colorant molecules, thus changing the colors of the film through which object is seen. Cleaning the accretions and adulterants which obscure the polychrome is the least intrusive treatment, although it can be very important. Second is the choice of materials which, if necessary, can be removed without further damage to the object. A. Bennett Co., Inc., 1972. Townsend, editors. In the decorative arts, this fascination manifested itself in a taste for Classical Revival elements. Praeger Co., 1968. ------ "Fluorescence of paint and varnish layers. At this point, we know how the Romans sat, but where did they put their stuff? These varnishes may be combined in turn with pigments to form oil paints. Drying oils harden by a chemical reaction between oxygen and the fatty acids which compose the oil, a process which may be modified by the specific preparation schedule and process. These liquids may degrade the film to the point where it is no longer a viable whole, or may simply remove all or part of the coating by dissolving it. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1912. 56-59. Candelilla is also a leaf wax, being derived from a shrub indigenous the U.S. southwest and northern Mexico. Gilding may be adhered directly to a wood substrate, but it is much more common for leaf to be placed on a mineral ground. As with transparent coatings, stable polychrome surfaces can be visually enhanced by the application of wax or resin coatings. Ozokerite is a derivative of bitumen and is a relatively crude raw material. As with all treatments, stable and reversible coatings and colorants are preferred. Vegetable dyes also included dyes extracted from wood, such as logwood and fustic. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, vol. The interested and engaged aficionado who doesn't care about the implications of preserving personal, family, and social history is, in my experience, a rare bird. It is obtained through either solvent extraction followed by steam or acidic distillation. ------ "Fluorescence of paint and varnish layers. Among these are waxes, gums, and oils, plus natural and synthetic resins, all of which can be used as transparent coatings. Fourth, restoration should be detectable under close scrutiny, to insure that future caretakers and scholars are not confused or misled by what may appear unaltered to casual or uninformed viewers. Because of this hardness it is very durable as a protective coating, but it is too hard to be used without modifiers to make it more workable and pliable. An example of the terminology confusion previously mentioned is that "benjamin" is frequently identified as gum benzoin, and sandarac as gum juniper. Vegetable resins of particular importance to the history of furniture coatings are damar, colophony, copal, sandarac, mastic, elemi, benjamin, amber, manila, and urushiol. What is the end use? The Romans had many kinds of tables, one for every kind of use, but the most common was the mensa, with a round top and three legs. The following treatment options and procedures are presented in that light. By this technique, if the underlying materials are stable enough, selective portions or areas are literally ground away with very mild abrasives to reach a layer of desired materials, or mechanically scraped away with tools to accomplish the same ends. 1-7. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Mussey, Robert D., editor. Tyrus Amethyst Bracelet - Museum Shop Collection $53.00 $36.85. "The Conservation of an Eighteenth-Century Japanned English Clock Case" in Lacquerwork and Japanning. ABOUT OUR ROMAN COLLECTION. The final step, as with most wax finishing, would be to buff with coarse linen followed by soft flannel or the like. Philadelphia, PA: Federation of Societies for Coatings Technology, 1986. New York: Watson Gupthill Publications, 1979. Another option is "oil gilding," which uses an oil/resin varnish as the size and results in a matte surface. 12-18. Montan is nearly opaque and very hard, with a melting point of around 75°C/167°F. A useful example of this application would be to address an alternative solution for the problem described at the beginning of this section, where a fractured surface was "cleaned" and the dirt simply forced into the fissures. Linseed oil may also be used in conjunction with other ingredients (mostly resins) to form transparent varnishes (see below). What Does It Mean to Have a Painting Restored & How do I Pick a Conservator? 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