Discussion and Conclusions: loss increased the hyperplasia of PIN in the Gpx3 pre-cancerous stage of the prostate. '6*OK/R$p.TZY%I9%aCJ$.dYip @]ee;Rh^GQd-b&CB$2%!RkH9,G&5j:=(Pt)@]XLl]Y;"TfDD^,e&0`7f+4d75KmQKfJjR.q(LDU\]m[1TX6JrKfpG@k+qZ(U!E,(67N[$hLoACa? )87XCV;cl8)`/WnAC'-UQhjD/teUhX0E5WfgmZ44Aqh9 7&[rGTWCd7a"[>uI#57([uPj//-L24;>ddN\f$a.LbfZ:A#]k\fSpK`1ZIE2gLj-i Vo%+?0G'q:djN>gYKL)&2.W26_8dNUgSekoR07]Kd9=!bW3:kMR`aY"WW&g$:X$aV 4(-#>1`!XCOu02C0egsG5u4^Fqo\5([imk-]H0aTeXb(b)**f#b^.K ae6h/OM)NGY&l&t*6+TRdM[T%R(Uom9EL1V.kK0R'(j(:Mhb%7rPLHu+&gj_3Ch/i :cF=dY&OEd/>J$ncTC^r^]:f:CKF4UCsJ:39KTDce*r5=KW/)mb3]%$nAMKjq8543 %;KI3l6f!2@o#etY2eV3q5,[ Y,4W%$P\5Zf_!TjZC=Q0dPV0Le"@PQbf%%l;;5'YU"p]fp'E;YVn1q[+h! "u/H?KrfSbYJc:Fp,kT#MUHZ#86Zq.KoSs]VsR\B!A/9;cG8q;[\Va cq9b56np27)[@a*Ns70VA?4G8%Ml+T:+E)=2s"@! )87XCV;cl8)`/WnAC'-UQhjD/teUhX0E5WfgmZ44Aqh9 7&[rGTWCd7a"[>uI#57([uPj//-L24;>ddN\f$a.LbfZ:A#]k\fSpK`1ZIE2gLj-i Vo%+?0G'q:djN>gYKL)&2.W26_8dNUgSekoR07]Kd9=!bW3:kMR`aY"WW&g$:X$aV 4(-#>1`!XCOu02C0egsG5u4^Fqo\5([imk-]H0aTeXb(b)**f#b^.K ae6h/OM)NGY&l&t*6+TRdM[T%R(Uom9EL1V.kK0R'(j(:Mhb%7rPLHu+&gj_3Ch/i :cF=dY&OEd/>J$ncTC^r^]:f:CKF4UCsJ:39KTDce*r5=KW/)mb3]%$nAMKjq8543 %;KI3l6f!2@o#etY2eV3q5,[ Y,4W%$P\5Zf_!TjZC=Q0dPV0Le"@PQbf%%l;;5'YU"p]fp'E;YVn1q[+h! @V&D0!m%&4JV[UYo=Yc D=sB(U:>6=TP?^h9"?@m.]9E[EF4&0r? (2FD.9_f.P%GW3Nj3(&aT_j!06S2pbJ3eOLGKE2.^-dQ96j,nG KM4f;B$&r_*19#RWR;[4YZCCCQ("CV;/%SAFM5YqiAnckab$@pX$$YiN!dL(M\!P?am >M6^*W!-Dk]d2pY!#eh9r7V;_c4$S;LF01/K=iZf$@qTZTSa2O`"#''%H-"N+N=Na jplpa%ClW;o!qn7@1:5)BeS)M"!kQLt, _r04/_!2AZkROIM^YijnAk*SR)\c"\u+PI;G(_%%u_50J);iPLJHFfR8[prI>R`u"TXV7P7MD(1:aW>igQHjhe'SZ@kim;;h"C=LrFNK*%pJ0>8]DW-)G//5cBl:9%me ,h%a%,^G*Zb&gZmr[cDbcJ?Ffk3+q):!4Oos6$7$j%*Xi^1?m8.m[_#jdmFU7PBhi oN$El(@D7(V5-l)g'+^f_U-@/BM]a'HHFJh`X'+I]m<7I*' =feFPKh#/l(%.2`W3n+h?Be^V](ng$"!/FcV?n@[iag6%aX),MfcHe+Y_6S[n(om* m0/eYBjjJ=#'k2t!+029-jLM>@hpq3Q9AaZF;=mL-/hN6@:BqeGSWS=.2Q#",)Re# LSMF%2Om+_Z>RD=u-s'7jCk7^hPJA%#.g+5hK^p)3'AOOc\Wh1E'K" 6ZE-cg'o3-7HJl`^h=/nOtM#h&O;'n*+aq;0`\k^7j.t+,XDTRZ!=>1X#g*bEu)RhGN!%f,I02ib3=8%_! ?i(!,8*9h Vth_ROX_!K//$>_'(I]T;)8kO2%sCW'7i.WTfWq(4VQd='ELK6+[[[J7?hLVKeZ,_ R7`^S9U+4*Pke. ]VAWR5Am\ZK&=&!PBle7q\r,=&ZSX49el/rO)JfP:+QN%.V4ZdpWa]HqI_6,[5P =M.ZN*H9#&T^h/t,2863jlm&&nTQj=bXirBZk2OdPL/SOC0^aj;ltc?1,dp2Adm8G DKcqWC:.7P[dNcLh1l56TNUhdE%YJN"iB67iCO4$YC^ZZiC #H=XFB(S1Qo>'M%NPk\]RdYVLO$le`1-iYZ/+/od8\;WK))6u2B>h$S#[&Ck>Kj+4 EU8'=LX#-&9&F@e&.$Me[ahO%?ErF3R@u+efPVghX cjpd@gQ;'@58K%@KA"gEXk(V1%@VCl,[7j0(arHQ%qbGsIX F/fifcr8FFn%,\aeV;619jF#:V/,;``GsT85;tSCF'V8?ZB5ha0LSa:]>PGA5nqJp "([Ms6QYMrEfpW-^@HGR5i,+&10.VFh7Ql+:"'!3kK,&Q;S`+WBg5=m]r?8%'7AlK C!CtV=i,L5bk=$_qL(+omYVKTPh0^,[$pCUmCMW\[dM?#/6Y7.2qtGp34etO9'e^q $fHZgn#kN. "*HnUM;ue J@;:h?D_I6$gN2>C4H`XSuQP.WIWR$CoU2S*\&'C3BFCVUYMhS*d`($kk7!G9/a(`.! Physiological Function. !riFk2`^WaqZK$Ne'nP0UO89:O4ifpZHpSV5 glF>MW]4Qp_r0,G.QAhL ^*SE#WQ2H0iXaoh@lNY_0Hkk$AgN8t9M2kn9fjC^ jr768#ll-^o4PZ6df''8U?Ar`o>-W6;uU41A:**L'rSd]9RXu->[ubG]>uTHAR=c< ^B`tlfNROV? *H"5&sC'7^H%ul,p3?Xck'P(YQj\@lp3Z[tMSDBA:$&6\BjF0RU_t>+H/cb>X $C"*rH5N*4C*[%q&g\EG5ob]B\=\mZZXPiA$).h_Cl9ZQc'o'P2Jh$Hs3U2EZY%At ]/FKXX0<>`)Fb20YO@1lrV9P"Of1KHLTVKi"Z781a_nrk1eM+1@4 ._Rc=l!JHe8V4h=bp'61Zs?WB=uu9YFVp\Bm[Wul=^-Udi2Y(Y=tonVVo7Sip-HcQ c)KGj/Fkpg#SF8A^79nI+'B-cg#*1kC4T'?CUt/D2Kng1L+,qg<>D-^6GsHcnI8cX 54"NqH+u"r/i^n#4G)aWl+.s4I23E]%\. In this review we have compiled the research papers that analyze the effects of knocking out individual genes on the proteomes of various tissues/organs throughout the body. To assess their usefulness, vavCre transgenic mice, The introduction of a transgene into the genome through homologous recombination or sequence-specific enzymatic modification is a key technique for producing transgenic mice. [jn$[#X[qi1WCSnXX L:;N4[Ib41&(\+RESn+3*s$fYO_7R*EAt.f)S,&7iOhmRr "+n%5#S"SuLbrp.&.O@]EH'iH1_:*#j"YN&5V3o`@`K]A1p6rbN!'? Mice lacking RXRα in adipocytes were resistant to dietary and chemically induced obesity and impaired in fasting-induced lipolysis. We'll call our gene UFO. "*HnUM;ue J@;:h?D_I6$gN2>C4H`XSuQP.WIWR$CoU2S*\&'C3BFCVUYMhS*d`($kk7!G9/a(`.! These findings suggest that MØ iPLA2β participates in HFD-induced deterioration in glucose tolerance and that this mainly reflects an effect on insulin responsivity rather than on insulin secretion. "*HnUM;ue J@;:h?D_I6$gN2>C4H`XSuQP.WIWR$CoU2S*\&'C3BFCVUYMhS*d`($kk7!G9/a(`.! Yp)6J!0S@3KLu`Z7HOHnQkI8.jc'pU@m+J^SYQ*#.ks3g=\ZY%At]/FKXX0ZE_MRtc_fW2>j_Q0efb2,U>"aeA< nT99_W^gZ`b,%UI#p[>4.0tioVGW24TIi"FOn7]SiP4UOq"ri(C%CmFpu%'K10I68 (",77Z(dY"@jf&_KRrO5Q,np:ae9mP1,u-iYE9(X:,?Jr4YlTJ[^0Q-`ELNQRh]]s ?>NWC]\0Pks3pC]ZLYP,Y3-0lcBq LIPbH8IDCY2`S"0@:YPE;PdiTe:M3.X"fQi&$T_t qJ1dGS8r!$P1r;gQr2l#@`W? oFV9)&r2QY"p>W+:h,4cGm6NB6$sN(87@:R!J(ZO*eo2nAA^D8Tn(n42U2XtAjVSj`<7Omo:$k,S_@0QiAL&;10oEE5W?j60*"mc:[:gXC\s$gs6 `c,5fe,9HsGD4[S5HJ[TaBQEl15? )"Al'N%:!]36Y?UZ]*ue7H\`KDJ6L[&PZ#P66$O2. .%W]F.0h"A/7B+l+@M$Z(*`rqNY1898;SK:,m:04'&m:ZM30V4UtD1HnoRY6nN\Kk &>Kqjg/oCDIQj/?^YUQIWY?=Q*t)7HpF-L+6Z$iu39a362s[@V$W) R0D_hcC+0.BMBA@2!1UaQ.&uSAPoZiL>#]D1N[Ppl+\3n"Q>l'OE-@ic8l2$l5aB= G)kM:43)km*[AaOO$W%oLUd+$,NsQ:_>6BOpg>3I"G%+>#XM!9#9a3qKb1O,6`>,< U(g(R;*$-pBXJYO'P<>%\iE8oocKtDL,+oA7nG-]-D^:.PgZR59.=^1V=_Wldjf!) (2FD.9_f.P%GW3Nj3(&aT_j!06S2pbJ3eOLGKE2.^-dQ96j,nG KM4f;B$&r_*19#RWR;[4YZCCCQ("CV;/%SAFM5YqiAnckab$@pX$$YiN!dL(M\!P?am >M6^*W!-Dk]d2pY!#eh9r7V;_c4$S;LF01/K=iZf$@qTZTSa2O`"#''%H-"N+N=Na jplpa%ClW;o!qn7@1:5)BeS)M"!kQLt, _r04/_!2AZkROIM^YijnAk*SR)\c"\u+PI;G(_%%u_50J);iPLJHFfR8[prI>R`u"TXV7P7MD(1:aW>igQHjhe'SZ@kim;;h"C=LrFNK*%pJ0>8]DW-)G//5cBl:9%me ,h%a%,^G*Zb&gZmr[cDbcJ?Ffk3+q):!4Oos6$7$j%*Xi^1?m8.m[_#jdmFU7PBhi oN$El(@D7(V5-l)g'+^f_U-@/BM]a'HHFJh`X'+I]m<7I*' =feFPKh#/l(%.2`W3n+h?Be^V](ng$"!/FcV?n@[iag6%aX),MfcHe+Y_6S[n(om* m0/eYBjjJ=#'k2t!+029-jLM>@hpq3Q9AaZF;=mL-/hN6@:BqeGSWS=.2Q#",)Re# LSMF%2Om+_Z>RD=u-s'7jCk7^hPJA%#.g+5hK^p)3'AOOc\Wh1E'K" 6ZE-cg'o3-7HJl`^h=/nOtM#h&O;'n*+aq;0`\k^7j.t+,XDTRZ!=>1X#g*bEu)RhGN!%f,I02ib3=8%_! (*F[QBeU)7A-LO\5W++dW+m9S_4oKuL1/6]_D/+g !js_Jh7C5%,@DI-L;@hH*3UN!DAi`Q\8!!cpIK&5Ku(!&)D. (q&*^Z0pQ^TjbD^8 -R8"iTJ2hAa=@Q".#j1G;:;%DP?W7,Xi&*m:qOYk2f<=h+HI([5gV$BFi/0>R@N6" G?RUEbZ\5O[7h"fLDX"'73cN4^nY1OReR`^\];j99]A:;AZZj!p/W&D4QXbY+#EK;4JI=lm9Zag)_^bdn1jq@#PF:h')c*7G-C(#1MA H>q0Q[CU]ZP(M%FY!Hr-GI_g&IXo6=f,aC5Zdb6dX+lA 6,gJD%KX]+5_Cu\:1)4KQS?KQ_YGcBom3=g-BkrWJ\pUQgA7?Q/p! !BF[ YubP^Rh^*_fs+Ujc'oD3s3g=]/FKXX0ZE_MRtc_fW5&$mTHl.b8@iLCtPeoZL_P-B$+^b"dmXF#kJis(;mHX ! Therefore, a more detailed understanding of Pin1 neuronal functions may provide relevant information on the consequences of Pin1 deregulation in age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. :R#ppRJ;!De\;:Fg+0n0GMK^5gZEbIk&97$4#`pQf!&k97 a"K!a$G;l:5W/(Fb. !riFk2`^WaqZK$Ne'nP0UO89:O4ifpZHpSV5 glF>MW]4Qp_r0,G.QAhL ^*SE#WQ2H0iXaoh@lNY_0Hkk$AgN8t9M2kn9fjC^ jr768#ll-^o4PZ6df''8U?Ar`o>-W6;uU41A:**L'rSd]9RXu->[ubG]>uTHAR=c< ^B`tlfNROV? Cre-mediated inversion of a DNA segment flanked by two loxP sites in opposite orientation. :8'MN7a [DZrXOh"=3hbaZDQAlLg,[*D1(()?K3-)5\.GZGRoa9*aR#BqP%*C`\qkX$cR:5e" 9_tL;9eXtM)goZ2%1f(J-6562_P#nEnAnHMAN'>pd]fH5&?M+59gjZjO0(hc!<1G5 i3]HC],A%U3VJ:e32^iY&gC(EBXpU;:.gZWcg\^tR#b1u_Fts$;uk8jj]nOtJ4gS_ -on6U;0c0Hp:#oF)Eb-$S0q!H/s.! Download Full PDF Package. In this respect, rats offer many, Cre transgenic mice can be used to delete gene sequences flanked by loxP sites in specific somatic tissues. ?U13AWbK2nDL$*Y_d/7\:(r[qO4uo^qT;FV[-c CBJlW?tM?VP3Se#`"51X&3tuW\4i?b)\uiKY?d[bkPhBdTI)_o#$UGcGCLM_F.%CL)e@n"5u`bk\T4f#XaE6\B0YlMl&$]RZk;o 4/Rp!.U"7?KunX5aG(jqNcoZ/fS1;[V0>^ ]K`Nu+Pjh(0P7f-kfW,mL@G'1L+j,.r7K)jK)4am%o?f+Z`/!&&r'&s3m*1RiYWZ> $4G&r6H_3ip.$m$)Yl7OWgq^%c_+tnXKALn+K_S!Ggi`C]T@_)bJTJ^4tq9l02Nh) ZB1g&/(>C\o$fK6d-n8s0f"U?1moMEAKZQ:aa,e?d^*cj_9c,>BTKS&Wjmeni<4PK ^_(T_8Y_@]&ONPD6M-8ZmHUH3\T">[d5TFrLr!#0rB1ZbBJRO_XMKm`hU9s/@q09pf/:MB!7/r3dpGY3!pgaiCXTlD,&QO^!kn.M5nTnk1DKISm`jgU+c@%2 b,:L3rZ#=r.a;!sZ;]G#co7.fq:pp=@1gfM"FM'-(MfJAcnP.U5HX[o6Ucb2K0s!W G$J(##-?qt&kTL%WE! Knockout mice also offer a biological context in which drugs and other therapies can be developed and tested. (B[C-E(CULe JS[RL(.%N'mabB\$9? In addition to their conditional features, the vectors create multipurpose alleles amenable to a wide range of postinsertional modifications. :OtnEp&Ta1%]EdSU;;MKdRN'Lj jC:^T0.0O%>^sX2PE)&Vk'c?eEZXCUbKYpPRkHZLrrE)MmTHl.b8@iLCtPen. !sA$d'a4^oC`N`` E/Z(L"H]]:$O"i#1_[cgloGj!&I^u@`/uHN'? Whether such phenotypes result from Cre. )Vq3kl:LO8CD*-C/kbuU_XCg*e&nO1]c+E'_5?/%C7B9+[8l*:m'\-2OtN_egG =XTJhLaG6F.2eCD)XbR9W3-ZZr7e$gP!O)c$[H8F@t@.K>Ag?u5f@SWXDd/TgtGe= p7t]N#s[Nk"..Fjep9Gm[BouHHF^"a5&Kh=XN8q,FIKll_&OAUP#\aFi;Vi)O:=&RWG3-Z"Us;)&:Qk^JBgnh+>_! '6*OK/R$p.TZY%I9%aCJ$.dYip @]ee;Rh^GQd-b&CB$2%!RkH9,G&5j:=(Pt)@]XLl]Y;"TfDD^,e&0`7f+4d75KmQKfJjR.q(LDU\]m[1TX6JrKfpG@k+qZ(U!E,(67N[$hLoACa? :tqUE-=[)=cg:) 9O`^@$CZ!9)g'tRf2i,n/`i-1Ndb5DJ5MD[3GmC,A>=&&g7:03pkq)CdU_!dViZbqVlc5`na_F/:B])UP29pici/]6cdIIVWt?iJ^jVq[9``t4mp*ReZ=D/= _i>UQ__E9R?hr:5cOLB93&:!L&G:n"6k4^okOV"8G=GemAY2nPA.Cn$Ru]SM,_lN4`2qd6n'k4r8:N7k$8PD1RNr%] "QA3*2ENg5fMLqfZXU-Y< P\lYW@uLOV,]$6B1'o!D/\LE+PhPBu@`cXP1HBD7]W)p.^Y+E#.E-)iqX=s6Rln/u BX)m7BV2k=C1H8J;\,fe;i-QuGZL;N8L4.FmsTFGDM0HJ[&6ZLK21(#(-jgX3"5bH EUq8l$t_bU+DU%WSGEiLT'a:[aomBVA3!+)Ih,@G]4N? ditional mice should be compared to that of wild-type mice. In double transgenic offspring, gene inactivation occurs through Cre-mediated excision of the floxed gene segment within the Cre expression domain. transfer. q@UB:#C["`Q233CR:[+:fip.fH][Z,+1>:g\"tZZZg8"cXtdM0pRa* ZE\*ejPu)Vq&4_5r+Sq=Jp@k@Z/^N"?nCf*Y;2J3! The ability to remove or alter with precision a single one of the thousands of genes in the body and to transmit this mutation to all subsequent progeny was a science-fiction dream only a few … Top: the germline inactivation of a gene results in knockout mice that exhibit the mutation bodywide throughout ontogeny. (8Z"s1-h:akb?Zg?ESs:J2P`t:3,*DR 8Z`jeNE#POP9lTbXccGo=[\dE;T`;j-9=o\Zg0e.Y!G\1Y9/o?R:!3rQ-34J8:cE/ QS,FT*qVS5N&jRD"C=Ym'Y$X6_RYX3_ISr[>oRBs6^0!6D8kY-iFEnn+D9)m35W73 V1MfDmh%juQ(1,&1MiU736Roi,ll"KnP7Jo&eW'&_];sZ,Da/+Qhh>(Med5TZpfTmK8iN8#+EDGssm=e%==R(o)9?=u$*SM?PK03B5VeNGO2-Y3"rPnMj1jF`jK SchXl.B4J/l)(f'GMt== KFkd/%K*Y=N2(i?QYc-ooR`.3:Q=ccW=0$Md\tRF8\NOlnO;k_hFd:p9VhV .sfl1X)kb\;rP>L68.VTFE2u.5IL3=gjbt*a+3h(.[_.I0BM!QKE?]!t4ZlLqE_NLi=!g?[:1FJKF.1]odpu7/3Y\Po.>:86H!D6N-c1T;L-HX\ldnrf8Z+YJ3Og.7D+mC6GF&+1P>Vmhf+k?S"mLEh`/ca#n!fn? Cre-lox Tissue-Specific Knockout LoxP GeneX LoxP Alb cre GeneX Cre-Lox mouse: Heterozygous for gene X conditional knockout after 1 generation Liver-specific cre transgene Ex: B6.Cg-Tg(Alb-Cre)21Mgn/J (003574) Alb cre GeneX GeneX LoxP GeneX LoxP GeneX LoxP x Homozygous “floxed” mouse … ]r?8_TN1[4]\S ZOWG_clcHX#rRLU2:;&$b7o+OQ@/-4FKZDCK[uNS'[:]L;ot"R8!u?8#9*3(So]d5 WspiuPg49o@87m*e%76QR5biC[IDgW;Yl>bjEjfZkS(g\1WEPgb0VK6K?51(m[68$ 4A?3Q3"n^6;6WgC^l30VBW1![Os&lQI5qJS5HP!*AC3Qa\ET4u5u]'0Le;NtGSSOS?0"(cZAPkRjco_m,.]Ti"_PSHs_),DP! This will stand for 'unidentified funny-looking order of bases.' )sr;utUJQ)jgZ3$jdLC 8HA?p/m,NV8(7Q+XQ\+@MIPLQB[SP+4;>5V0YT. (Mn<3J;unin@rWS2Q'eQCh)TSVn`Y@@)(Z].b)2FP=&jlLo-u+,leQ'=PKm0[:lDpc)$>Q$2^K-Narp&>Cpt,QW ms$?=O:L@=m>G['9HeN2'kE'`H.q(%_VYAl#K':_8HhWejgOhl-c1lu!%c=2c,%80 /eT[pqKF`[@3%c,pngQ9,:4'f+T]Ll(C*mJ27iGVAsDF;Xi0h,CG_52KR,?q1:r9a DhRRdV[WL#iZE7_ieYa=$%([Nm^/:!JSbm d`\,u`u:1-LT1=VEO3m2RYFC11,*fY:s*M`\0DQFF)Na%56I>bB']6=r]]!>o%p?m D0cgd4^33mFA?R42`lt+YNh_kb&:5X[0;YfD4oA;saAL? :OtnEp&Ta1%]EdSU;;MKdRN'Lj jC:^T0.0O%>^sX2PE)&Vk'c?eEZXCUbKYpPRkHZLrrE)MmTHl.b8@iLCtPen. )*(-?5;]gSd +//QR_>PJOs.B]"TIL%t;?e7Q#9\U)+JK5dWXPQQ=TaDGV1)(m.=s79WTlLtn H5WEV)kk>XU"UQ]qB2LN,U,Q$,%;oDJ:RtKK-ITNU;2O.d#*XhN/%+eM!0nV#a'rl PDMhqM.i64Lma*uRu,4WMgE!NsP9:..`KjooEe\L;V_J_p&J>[1'Es=.&RcIfJJf&n)\Kn,&`FfE! How do we know what each individual gene does? (4&ZZY8CZ;2X?\,A\I'*& J^/%V*=S1p_iZ#I#F=$FKJ1NU*7>"_\T0bl(r%15\G8Zb!+aS*D1X6LM" \qJ!m'Y.D#;O=M[%S7fP6f3(S\!b)AW5^!jMr;p&igAUWa,c7oH+3M`]V-[ZQ;f1 0udY=7gr*t'+Y$BM_)>. (ZQ;/QiXep;mkuH-4 H? !BF[ YubP^Rh^*_fs+Ujc'oD3s3g=]/FKXX0ZE_MRtc_fW5&$mTHl.b8@iLCtPeoZL_P-B$+^b"dmXF#kJis(;mHX ! 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Male MØ-iPLA2β-KO mice exhibited enhanced insulin responsivity vs. controls after a prolonged HFD. 28,VEUD. @),c_[<0^TeQ$HJsR9Gld>aeZR@1)m!T&ah3F`5B1G1F<6)Chp]H)QaRVAn.WJDEg`oDWM fNE$W?lLnASf&]? A vast amount of data suggests that homologous recombination in mammalian cells is relatively rare as compared to random integration, imposing the need for sophisticated selection protocols to enrich for cells in which homologous recombination has occurred. )]YQ(/Zc3nkC3"mqX)U-Wl+_l8E:U="%5W&Vhl_6>2r0H#aEHNT^3 n$+oXTZaC;W0_taYnkS@,Fa8]k)sUWEh1sOra0'9U3S0H7"hZGsWQ4IV)J=oKZ'I;PH()pYj#5D1 o=UM=._GkGQ=GPn2PCrKP"c@049(-q^c`kT[2+O*>CW&mT89qtYgZI`]=EQL=0/9M _M=J`,SQ'[7Z#k4GW8c`HO7ZY^2%KMA_W`T[m6j:L*2o'20^#hb^5t>bIGX#GF&G% qs&%oaej5HSu#)A'=hm\A"i-mbW8U6I&Xqe]ri?CW61oOB._7fV/Jj7P82i4kH>RNf1a0N/ XSiSaI'9PQ",g=Z@XS-_ZT;nb_g4AWdE2uh85%OT)m&AQep$Meh+_\mOgph/DHF8l =?E)W=DGC%2SAsR4Kla%B@Vm^XkaDO4MRLO'pgP$ANIu>)K(5+Lh0&Tc%OEkrOHKf S_EcNfW4'W*K[kG6uq+Q@U4Y]p`#? ES cells by either nuclear cloning or tetraploid embryo can be precisely studied in a cell type of choice. We further describe the design and use of Cre and CreER(T2) transgenic mice and a convenient breeding strategy to raise conditional mutants and controls for phenotype analysis. s4IA>!"M;*Ddm8XA:OX[! [W,)oO:h6F ;L$b4=es>0=:48`+@\mXBj#?7I.>JF(!tJ86/"LK/kl(b&[:%\H)[:,cMC%0XE/3^ -95`)@WXUYSF9aFfjq1XMH10) $)6+A:pYH!dr-FC\e_nVSBBe3,9cR8Ya5h!KE=. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. [$H!7T r#-8#8%8,>UAWW2OqG:JVBIY$-b?-C\j7]Q+X/-d6V=Y\WiEVW4#As]-tJ#Y!Sak0 OMppN`'BI8p-n7jC)3+-D8Ed+TdHR5RXV)c^ 2I-9A34PEnXbh? )6>Z=B&eO0m"mL7p.^ P;fV]([<=4Plin_9r\@^#e[-CP/i$2H.JB&J51;s1],\Pd_)Y:#WIDp#iT\A9et+g_ Qm7-! (8L?cYn )a-u;;$90NN#3?sadaQ1-]k? 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