The geography of this desert consisted of more mountains and rocky areas than sand dunes. What is the Geographical Setting of Ancient Egypt? But then in 3100 BCE king Narmer unified the land and started the pharaonic dynastic period. f='Contact' The Western Desert was actually part of the Libyan Desert and covered 262,000 square miles. There was no need at that time to settle near the Nile. Geography and early civilization: Ancient Egypt was located in northeast Africa on the banks of the Lower Nile River, the longest river in the world. b='info' Rock gypsum was found near the Red Sea as well as in the Western desert areas. There are different customs, accents and traditions found in Upper and Lower Egypt. A huge portion of ancient remains are various types of stone, from which a lot can be gleaned about the geology of ancient Egypt. You can block or delete them by changing your browser settings and force blocking all cookies on this website. Nasa Image of Egypt and the Nile River. document.write(a+b+c+d+e) Its topography consists mainly of desert plateau but the eastern part is cut by the Nile River valley. Very little rain fell in ancient Egypt, certainly not much more than falls in the present, and so drinking water, washing water, water for crops and animals, all of it came from the Nile. This wind causes humidity to drop and temperatures to soar over 110 degrees Fahrenheit. The Egyptian name was actually Ineb Hedj. I learned that Egypt had many good geography features. The ancient Egyptians used this land for growing their crops. The Nile River in Ancient Egypt helped agriculture develop because it provided a water source, to grow crops. We use cookies to let us know when you visit our websites, how you interact with us, to enrich your user experience, and to customize your relationship with our website. Thebes also contains the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens, with hundreds of royal grave sites. Note that blocking some types of cookies may impact your experience on our websites and the services we are able to offer. Between March and May, a hot, dry wind called the khamasin blows through the desert. Click on the different category headings to find out more. Click here to learn more about The Nile River, function clearText(thefield){ There were deserts that bordered Egypt on the east, south, and west with the Mediterranean Sea to the north. The ancient Egyptians depended on the river for their survival, and till now the bulk of the population live along its banks. Egypt shares long borders with Libya to the west and with Sudan to the south. } Tall cliffs surrounded it on either side. Quarries to find limestone were mostly built in the hills overlooking the Nile River valley. In this section you will find several maps of ancient and modern Egypt. Memphis was chosen for its strategic location between Upper and Lower Egypt to ensure political control and control of the trade between the two divisions. This desert also contained oases, five of which are still known today. Until the establishment of Alexandria by Alexander the Great in 331 BCE, the following were the two most important cities of Egypt during the Pharaonic Period: Memphis: the first proper administrative capital of the Old Kingdom, after the rulers stopped using the above three centers as capitals in 3100 BCE. The flooding of the Nile was caused by snowmelt far to the south where the Nile begins. Ancient Egypt's geographical setting is mostly made up of deserts, rivers, and rocky terrain. Two seasons can be clearly demarcated, the summer and the winter season. The geography of Egypt greatly affected the unique culture these ancient people created thousands of years ago. Coastal areas would benefit from winds coming off the Mediterranean Sea, but in the interior, these winds were hardly felt and temperature was high, especially in the summer. The Nile determined where many of the people of Egypt lived, If you look at a map of ancient Egypt the borders tightly hug the Nile because they lived in a dry desert environment, even with the slightly changed environment in ancient Africa, Egypt was still a humid and dry land. escramble() It may appear odd that the Upper Egypt actually referred to lands to the south, yet this distinction was based on the flow of the Nile. The geography also affected the materials the civilization used to build things, and it kept the civilization relatively safe from invasion. The Nile River flows north through Egypt and into the Mediterranean Sea. The climate of ancient Egypt was much like today: hot and arid. Bodies of Water: Nile River, Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Nile River Delta 3. The Nile opened access in and out of ancient Egypt. The Greek philosopher Herodotus called Egypt "the gift of the Nile.". The geography of ancient Egypt is divided into 4 main parts, although there are many other subdivisions. A variety of sedimentary stones were used, including limestone, rock gypsum, sandstone, chert and travertine. Since these providers may collect personal data like your IP address we allow you to block them here. Once the land was unified and the Old Kingdom began, Egypt started to have a series of capital cities. The best places to see Egypt's wildlife are in its more than 20 protected regions, which include oases, deserts, mountains, coastal areas, river islands, and … Egypt's boundaries also include the Sinai Peninsula. Lower Egypt is the northern part of the land and Upper Egypt … The Geography of Egypt. The mountainous region of Sinai has the coolest temperatures during the night, due to its elevation. Egypt is predominantly desert. Some of these stones included emerald, beryl, garnet, peridot, turquoise and a wide variety of quartz such as agate and amethyst. This site uses cookies. The ancient … Memphis is the Greek name. If you do not want that we track your visist to our site you can disable tracking in your browser here: We also use different external services like Google Webfonts, Google Maps and external Video providers. But then around 5000 BCE, the lush green began to turn into desert. Sitemap - Privacy policy. Ancient Egyptians referred to its deserts as the Red Lands and they were considered barren and hostile. But in fact, it wasn’t always that way. Travertine and chert were also found in these quarries, while additional quarries for limestone were built near Alexandria and the area where the Nile poured into the Mediterranean. It is part of what is known as the Arabian Desert today. //--> Click to enable/disable google analytics tracking. Life in ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt can be thought of as an oasis in the desert of northeastern Africa, dependent on the annual inundation of the Nile River to support its agricultural population. The funny thing about Egyptian capitals is that there were often two at a time – one administrative capital (where the political business was conducted) and one religious capital (where major temples and cults conducted their rituals). But, there was a huge difference about Mesopotamia and Egypt. Egypt was also surrounded by desert, which provided protection and resources for building. This forced the tribes to settle nearer and nearer to the Nile river since it started becoming the main source of fresh water in Egypt. Subscribe to The Pyramid Scrolls and receive a free ebook copy of an ancient Egyptian wisdom manifesto. We may request cookies to be set on your device. Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. It’s near northern Cairo and its ruins now lie in modern-day Sakkara, Dahshur, Abusir and Giza. Sahara Desert 2. Egypt was greatly affected by it’s geography, for instance Egypt's expansion was highly affected by the Nile. Rain and clouds are more prevalent near Alexandria, which is influenced again by the Mediterranean Sea. By continuing to browse the site, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. This looks a bit confusing on a map because Upper Egypt is to the south and Lower Egypt is to the north. b+='@' There were some areas though that could be considered centers of settlements and tombs. This desert was arid and barren, but the ancient Egyptians used it extensively to mine various stones. The headwaters of this great river lie deep in Africa and every spring, snowmelt from the Ethiopian highlands poured down into the river, causing it to slowly rise. Geography of Ancient Egypt As you might have guessed, the geography of ancient Egypt is all about the Nile. Geography. One of the most striking features of the geography of Egypt is its extreme climate. else if (h) d=g+h+i Canaan, especially the Negev, was of keen interest to the Egyptian Pharaohs. G. R A P E S Religion The religions of the Ancient Egyptians consisted of Polytheistic beliefs. The country’s chief wealth came from the fertile floodplain of the Nile valley, where the river flows between bands of limestone hills, and the Nile delta, in which it fans into several branches north of present-day Cairo . These areas are Abydos, Heirakonpolis and Naqada. The SAHARA DESERT flanked the valley on the east and west. Winter temperatures can drop as low as three degrees Fahrenheit during the night in some towns. These precious gemstones were found in Sinai, the deserts and an island in the Red Sea. As you might have guessed, the geography of ancient Egypt is all about the Nile. Deities were believed to be present in and in control of the elements and This was the religious capital during much of the New Kingdom. Size Comparison: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico. Please be aware that this might heavily reduce the functionality and appearance of our site. The Nile floodwaters were extremely predictable, overflowing sometime in late July, then receding in November, wildly contrasting to the floods in Mesopotamia, which were unpredictable and extremely destructive when they did happen. Geography and Climate of Egypt . e='' The philosopher rightly observed that everything that caused the Egyptian civilization to exist and flourish came from the Nile. But in fact, it wasn’t always that way. The harsh climate pushed the early Egyptian tribes toward the Nile River Valley, where the long, strong river kept the surrounding areas … The “black land” also impacted the ancient Egyptians because it gave them a place to grow crops for food. Also, the Nile River, a part of the geography… Lower Egypt was the wide delta sitting where the modern city of Cairo is now. 35,000 km - 3.5% - of the total land area is cultivated and permanently settled. The ancient Egyptians depended on the river for their survival, and till now the bulk of the population live along its banks. First there is the north and south. How did the geography of ancient egypt help agriculture develop? The last two divisions were between red and black land, as previously mentioned. else d=b The Eastern Desert extended out to the Red Sea.